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ELEVENTHEDITIONENGINEERING liquid MECHANICSDONALD F. ELGERUniversity the Idaho, MoscowBARBARA A. LEBRETUniversity that Idaho, MoscowCLAYTON T. CROWEWashington State University, PullmanJOHN A. ROBERSONWashington State University, Pullman

You are watching: Engineering fluid mechanics 11th edition pdf

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This 11th edition is devoted to Dr. Clayton Crowe (1933–2012) and to our wonderful colleagues, students, friends, and also families. We specifically acknowledge ours spouses Linda and also Jim and Barbara’s grandson Moses Pakootas for your patience and support. Iii

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CONTENTSPreface vii 4.6 A pplying the Bernoulli Equation follow me a streamline 1234.7 measure Velocity and also Pressure 1294.8 C haracterizing the Rotational motion of a CHAPTERONE development 1Flowing fluid 1321.1 engineering Fluid Mechanics 2 4.9 T the Bernoulli Equation because that Irrotational flow 1361.2 exactly how Materials room Idealized 3 4.10 D escribing the Pressure field for flow over 1.3 W eight, Mass, and also Newton’s legislation of Gravitation 8 a one Cylinder 1371.4 vital Math object 11 4.11 C alculating the Pressure ar for a Rotating circulation 1391.5 Density and Specif c load 13 4.12 Summarizing crucial Knowledge 1411.6 The appropriate Gas regulation (IGL) 151.7 Units and Dimensions 181.8 trouble Solving 24 CHAPTERFIVE T he manage Volume method 1.9 Summarizing vital Knowledge 27 and also The continuity Equation 1545.1 Characterizing the price of flow 154CHAPTERTWO liquid Properties 32 5.2 The control Volume method 1602.1 System, State, and Property 33 5.3 The continuous Equation (Theory) 1662.2 feather Up fluid Properties 34 5.4 The continually Equation (Application) 1672.3 Topics associated to density 37 5.5 Predicting Cavitation 1742.4 Pressure and Shear anxiety 39 5.6 Summarizing vital Knowledge 1772.5 The Viscosity Equation 422.6 Surface stress and anxiety 482.7 Vapor push 52 CHAPTERSIX The momentum Equation 1882.8 Characterizing Thermal energy in flow Gases 53 6.1 U nderstanding Newton’s second Law of motion 1882.9 Summarizing key Knowledge 54 6.2 The linear Momentum Equation: concept 1926.3 T he straight Momentum Equation: applications 195CHAPTERTHREE fluid Statics 60 6.4 T he direct Momentum Equation for a Stationary regulate Volume 1973.1 Describing pressure 616.5 E xamples of the direct Momentum Equation 3.2 The Hydrostatic Equations 66(Moving Objects) 2063.3 Measuring push 716.6 The Angular momentum Equation 2113.4 The Pressure pressure on a panel (Flat Surface) 756.7 Summarizing vital Knowledge 2143.5 Calculating the Pressure force on a Curved surface 813.6 Calculating Buoyant pressures 843.7 Predicting stability of Immersed and also Floating bodies 86 CHAPTERSEVEN The energy Equation 2273.8 Summarizing an essential Knowledge 907.1 technological Vocabulary: Work, Energy, and Power 2287.2 conservation of energy 230CHAPTERFOUR T he Bernoulli Equation 7.3 The power Equation 232and press Variation 104 7.4 The power Equation 2394.1 relenten Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 104 7.5 mechanically Eff ciency 2414.2 Characterizing Velocity the a Flowing fluid 107 7.6 C ontrasting the Bernoulli Equation and also the 4.3 Describing circulation 109 power Equation 2444.4 Acceleration 115 7.7 Transitions 2444.5 A pplying Euler’s Equation to know 7.8 The Hydraulic and also Energy Grade currently 247Pressure sports 118 7.9 Summarizing crucial Knowledge 250 v

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vi ContentsCHAPTEREIGHT D imensional evaluation 12.2 Mach Number relationships 395and Similitude 263 12.3 regular Shock waves 40012.4 ns sentropic Compressible flow through a Duct 8.1 The need for Dimensional evaluation 263with varying Area 4058.2 Buckingham π to organize 26512.5 Summarizing vital Knowledge 4168.3 Dimensional evaluation 2658.4 usual π-Groups 2698.5 Similitude 272 CHAPTERTHIRTEEN flow Measurements 4208.6 M odel researches for operation without 13.1 measure up Velocity and also Pressure 420Free-Surface effects 276 13.2 Measuring flow Rate (Discharge) 4278.7 Model-Prototype performance 279 13.3 Summarizing an essential Knowledge 4428.8 A pproximate Similitude in ~ High Reynolds number 2808.9 Free-Surface version Studies 283CHAPTERFOURTEEN Turbomachinery 4498.10 Summarizing crucial Knowledge 28614.1 Propellers 45014.2 Axial-Flow Pumps 454CHAPTERNINE V iscous flow Over 14.3 Radial-Flow devices 458a flat Surface 29214.4 Specif c speed 4619.1 T he Navier-Stokes Equation for Uniform flow 29314.5 Suction restrictions of Pumps 4639.2 Couette circulation 29414.6 Viscous results 4659.3 Poiseuille circulation in a Channel 29514.7 Centrifugal Compressors 4669.4 The border Layer (Description) 29714.8 generators 4699.5 Velocity Prof les in the boundary Layer 29814.9 Summarizing key Knowledge 4779.6 The border Layer (Calculations) 3009.7 Summarizing vital Knowledge 304CHAPTERFIFTEEN flow in Open networks 483CHAPTERTEN flow in Conduits 311 15.1 description of Open-Channel flow 48410.1 Classifying flow 312 15.2 T he energy Equation for stable Open-Channel flow 48610.2 specifying Pipe size 314 15.3 stable Uniform flow 48710.3 pipe Head ns 315 15.4 steady Nonuniform flow 49510.4 tension Distributions in Pipe flow 317 15.5 swiftly Varied circulation 49510.5 Laminar flow in a Round tube 319 15.6 Hydraulic run 50510.6 stormy Flow and the Moody diagram 322 15.7 gradually Varied circulation 51010.7 A Strategy for Solving problems 327 15.8 Summarizing an essential Knowledge 51710.8 linked Head ns 33110.9 Nonround Conduits 335 CHAPTERSIXTEEN M odeling of liquid 10.10 Pumps and also Systems of pipe 337 Dynamics problems 52410.11 Summarizing an essential Knowledge 34216.1 Models in fluid Mechanics 52516.2 F oundations for discovering Partial Differential CHAPTERELEVEN Drag and also Lift 355Equations (PDEs) 52911.1 Relating Lift and Drag to stress Distributions 35516.3 The continuous Equation 53811.2 Calculating the Drag pressure 35716.4 The Navier-Stokes Equation 54411.3 drag of Axisymmetric and also 3-D body 36016.5 Computational liquid Dynamics (CFD) 54811.4 Terminal Velocity 36516.6 examples of CFD 55311.5 Vortex Shedding 36716.7 A path for relocating Forward 55511.6 Reducing drag by Streamlining 36816.8 Summarizing vital Knowledge 55611.7 drag in Compressible circulation 36811.8 The theory of background 369 attachment 56311.9 Lift and also Drag ~ above Airfoils 37311.10 Lift and Drag on roadway Vehicles 379 answers 57311.11 Summarizing key Knowledge 382Index 580CHAPTERTWELVE Compressible flow 39012.1 W ave Propagation in Compressible Fluids 390

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PREFACEAudienceT is publication is written for engineering students of all majors who space taking a f rst or second course in f uid mechanics. College student should have background understanding in physics (mechanics), chemistry, statics, and also calculus.Why We composed This BookOur mission is to equip world to do design skillfully. T us, we composed this publication to describe the main principles of f uid mechanics at a level ideal for a f rst or second college course. In addition, we have contained selected engineering skills (e.g., crucial thinking, trouble solving, and also estimation) due to the fact that we believe that practicing these skills will assist all students learn f uid mechanics better.ApproachKnowledge. Every chapter begins with explanation of what is important to learn. T ese learning outcomes room formulated in terms of what college student will have the ability to do. T en, the thing sections current the knowledge. Finally, the knowledge is summarized at the end of every chapter.Practice v Feedback. T e research study of Dr. Anders Ericsson suggests that discovering is brought around through intended practice. Intentional practice entails doing something and also then getting feedback. To carry out opportunities for deliberate practice, we have detailed two to adjust of resources:1. T is message contains an ext than 1100 end-of-chapter problems. T e answers come selected, even-numbered troubles are noted in the back of the book. Professors can gain access to the solution hand-operated by contacting your Wiley representative.2. W ileyPlus provides a means for professors to entrust end-of-chapter problems and also to have actually the grading and also the record maintaining done through a computer system system. T is may be helpful to profes-sors with large classes or come professors who carry out not have actually a budget plan to pay a grader.Features the this BookLearning Outcomes. Each chapter begins with learning Visual Approach. T is text provides sketches and photographs outcomes so that students can identify what expertise they to assist students learn more ef ectively by connecting pictures should acquire by studying the chapter. To words and also equations.Rationale. Every section defines what contents is presented Foundational Concepts. T is text presents significant con-and why this content is relevant. Cepts in a clear and also concise format. T ese concepts form building blocks for higher levels of learning. Vii

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viii PrefaceSeminal Equations. T is message emphasizes technological deri- Unit practice is emphasized due to the fact that it helps engineers spot vations so the students have the right to learn to perform the derivations on and f x mistakes and because it helps engineers put definition their own, increasing their level of knowledge. Functions on concepts and also equations.include the following:Traditional and also SI Units. Examples and also homework • D erivations of main equations space presented in a step-by- troubles are presented utilizing both SI and traditional unit step fashion. Systems. T is presentation helps students gain familiarity • T e holistic meaning of key equations is described with systems that are provided in professional practice.using words. Example Problems. Every chapter has instances to display • key equations are named and listed in Table F.2. Exactly how the knowledge is used in context and to existing essen-• key equations are summarized in tables in the chapters. Tial details needed for application.• A procedure for using each key equation is presented solutions Manual. T e text includes a thorough solutions in the pertinent chapter. Hand-operated for instructors. Plenty of solutions are presented through the Wales-Woods Model.Chapter Summaries. Each chapter concludes through a photo Gallery. T e f gures native the message are accessible in review so the students have the right to review the crucial knowledge in PowerPoint format, for basic inclusion in lecture presenta-the chapter.tions. T is source is obtainable only to instructors. Come request online Problems. We have created countless online prob- access to this and also all instructor resources, please call your lems that carry out immediate feedback to students while also local Wiley revenue representative.ensuring the students complete the assigned job-related on time. Interdisciplinary Approach. Historically, this text was T ese troubles are available in WileyPLUS at instructor’s composed for the civil engineer. We are retaining this method discretion.while adding material so the the message is likewise appropriate for other design disciplines. Because that example, the text pres-Process Approach. A procedure is a an approach for gaining ents the Bernoulli equation using both head terms (civil results. A process approach requires f guring out exactly how experts design approach) and also terms v units that pressure do things and also adapting this very same approach. T is textbook (the technique used through chemical and also mechanical engi-presents lot of processes.neers). Us include troubles that are appropriate to product Wales-Woods Model. T e Wales-Woods model repre- breakthrough as exercised by mechanical and also electrical en-sents how professionals solve problems. T is version is gift gineers. Some problems feature various other disciplines, such as in thing 1 and also used in example problems throughout the practice physiology. T e reason for this interdisciplinary text. Method is the the human being of today’s technician is becoming more and more interdisciplinary.Grid Method. T is message presents a systematic process, referred to as the net method, because that carrying and also canceling units. What is brand-new in the 11th version 1. C ritical T inking (CT) is presented in thing 1. Rationale: once students use CT, they find out f uid mechanics better. Also, they become much better engineers. 2. L earn outcomes room organized right into categories. Rationale: T e grouping of outcomes rises the clarity about what is important. 3. N ew product was included in thing 1 explicate force, mass, weight, Newton’s regulation of global gravitation, density, and also specif c weight. Rationale: We have seen countless instances the student work-related indicating that these simple concepts are occasionally not in place. Also, introducing these subject in chapter 1 gives a method to introduce engineering calculations earlier in the book. 4. W e introduced the Voice the the engineer in chapter 1 together a means to current wisdom. Rationale: T e Voice the the Engineer gives a framework for presenting an mindset that is widely mutual in the professional engineering community.