Natural history Museum & Biodiversity study Center and also Department of Ecology & evolution Biology, college of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
Journal that Mammalogy, Volume 88, issue 4, 20 respectable 2007, Pages 951–958, https://doi.org/10.1644/06-MAMM-A-294R.1
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Abstract

For the past century, the genus Styloctenium Matschie has actually been recognized to contain a single species restricted to Sulawesi and the surrounding Togian Islands. Styloctenium has a distinct pelage, characterized by white supraocular spots and also a white rostral strip on one otherwise mostly orange pelage. Several additional features characterize the genus, including the lose of il and also m3, rudimentary state of Pl, and marked reduction of the molar cusps. The genus has often been considered very closely allied come Pteropus, yet no explicit, broadly supported, phylogenetic hypotheses have actually been proposed. Herein, I explain a new species of Styloctenium indigenous Mindoro Island, Philippines, using a variety of dental, cranial, soft tissue, and external characters. The new species own all characters known to be diagnostic the Styloctenium, but likewise multicusped lower and upper canines. It is known only from the type locality in west Mindoro Island, is pursued (along with other big pteropodids), and also may be at danger of extinction due to the fact that of habitat loss, hunting, or both. The presence of a midsized, conspicuously colored, undescribed mammal on Mindoro emphasizes the require for additional biodiversity inventories and specimen arsenal in the region, and also on Mindoro in particular.

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biodiversity, Megachiroptera, Mindoro, Pteropodini, southeast Asia, Styloctenium, Sulawesi, taxonomy

In 1857, Alfred Russell Wallace collected a juvenile paris fox, top top the island the Sulawesi (then Celebes), the possessed a unique pattern of facial markings. The specimen at some point made its method to the brothers Museum and was described as Pteropus wallacei by Gray (1866). In his description, Gray commented that although he had seen just a single juvenile, it was so unlike any type of other bat the the small sample and also young age of the holotype go “… not in the least invalidate the distinctness of the species” (Gray 1866:65). The holotype lacks permanent dentition (Dobson 1878) and thus some disagreement over its suitable designation ensued. Peters (1867) taken into consideration the type specimen a juvenile Pteropus personatus; Dobson (1878:40), however, with some reservations owing to the paucity the specimens, created “… as the strange markings that the hair of the challenge are really different indigenous those of Pt. Personatus, ns think it far better to take into consideration Pt. Wallacei a distinct types …”.

In 1899, Pteropus wallacei was called as the form and single member that a novel genus, Styloctenium Matschie, based on the loss of il, shape of I1 and I2, height of P3, and shape the the zygomatic arches noted in adult specimens accumulated \"after Gray\"s summary (Matschie 1899). Styloctenium own several extr autapomorphies with respect to other ptero-podines, such together the loss of m3, rudimentary state of P1, and marked reduction the molar cusps. Fearbut (1907:63) detailed that Styloctenium is well differentiated from allies as result of its “… strange dental formula and by the structure of the incisors and also posterior cheek teeth.” subsequent authors (e.g., Andersen 1912; Corbett and also Hill 1992; Simmons 2005) have complied with Miller in recognizing the generic status of Styloctenium.

Recent phylogenetic analyses (e.g., Colgan and also da Costa 2002; Colgan and Flannery 1995; Giannini and Simmons 2003, 2005) have actually made great improvements in our knowledge of relationships amongst pteropodids, yet Styloctenium and several other rarely accumulated taxa (e.g., Harpyionycteris, Neopteryx, and also Pteralopex) regularly have no been included in these analyses, leaving our knowledge of phylogenetic history, biogeography, and also character advancement in the grsommos.net in require of much additional study. Although no explicit and broadly sustained phylogenetic hypotheses have contained Styloctenium, the genus often has been considered a close allied of Pteropus (e.g., Andersen 1912; fearbut 1907). Due to the fact that its description an ext than a century ago, Styloctenium has been thought about monotypic, and also no specimens have actually been report from past Sulawesi and the bordering Togian archipelago (Corbett and also Hill 1992; Simmons 2005).

In February 2006, about 1,200 kilometres north that the known distribution of Styloctenium (Fig. 1), I collected 4 specimens of a midsized pteropodid through distinctive facial markings and also unusual teeth. Herein, I define these specimens as representing a new species of Styloctenium. I use dental, cranial, external, and also soft tissue characters to differentiate it indigenous S. Wallacei and other known members that Pteropodini (sensu Bergmans 1997).



Map the insular south east Asia showing the circulation of the genus Styloctenium. S. Wallacei is well-known only from Sulawesi and also the Togian archipelago (medium gray), Indonesia. S. Mindorensis, brand-new species, is well-known only from Mindoro Island (black), Philippines.


Materials and also Methods

Specimens that the brand-new species were accumulated in mist nets in ~ the interface in between an open field with a few fruit trees and also selectively logged lowland forest. Geographic coordinates at the repertoire locality were taken v a handheld an international positioning system. Specimens were at first fixed in buffered 10% formalin and later transferred to 70% ethyl alcohol. Aliquots that liver were kept in 95% ethyl alcohol and also subsequently stored in ~ — 80°C. Skulls were later on removed and cleaned from all 4 specimens. The soft palate the 1 specimen was photographed prior to the skull to be cleaned.

Specimens examined space housed at the university of Kansas Natural history Museum and Biodiversity Research center (KU), American Museum the Natural history (AMNH), field Museum (FMNH), Smithsonian school (USNM), and the nationwide Museum of the Philippines (NMP). Every specimens examined are provided in attachment I. The holotype that the new species will certainly be moved to the NMP.

Osteological nomenclature adheres to Giannini et al. (2006b). Color terminology follows Ridgway (1912) other than where more generalized usual nouns space used. Qualitative characters were compared to published descriptions that the complying with members of Pteropodini: Acerodon, Mirimiri, Neopteryx, Pteralopex, and Pteropus (Andersen 1912; Bergmans and also Rozendaal 1988; Dobson 1878; Flannery 1995; Giannini and Simmons 2005; Gray 1866; Helgen 2005b; Hill and also Beckon 1978; Koopman 1994; Matschie 1899; müller 1907). Direct comparisons were made in between specimens the the brand-new species and Styloctenium wallacei, Acerodon jubatus, A. Leucotis, Pteralopex atrata, Pteropus dasymallus, P. Hypomelanus, P. Leucopterus, and P. Pumilus. These taxa were selected because that comparisons since of close taxonomic relationships v Styloctenium, mutual character says with the brand-new species, due to the fact that they occur at or near the type locality the the new species, or a combination of these components (Andersen 1912; Bergmans and also Rozendaal 1988; Heaney et al. 1998; fearbut 1907).

Standard exterior measurements were required to the nearest millimeter on fresh euthanized specimens the the new species; this included full length (TL), length of hind foot (HF), length of ear, length of forearm (FA), and also mass (in grams). The adhering to cranial and dental variables were measured come the nearest 0.1 mm v dial calipers: greatest length of skull (GLS), condylobasal size (CBL), zygomatic breadth (ZB), interorbital constriction (IOC: take away anterior come the postorbital process), postorbital constriction (POC: bring away posterior come the postorbital process), mastoid breadth (MB), palatal size (PL: posterior margin the incisive fissure to anteriormost point on posterior margin of palate), size of maxillary toothrow (LMTR: in ~ alveolus), breadth across upper molars (BUM: at alveolus), width of Ml (WM1: in ~ crown), size of Ml (LM1: at alveolus), width of P4 (WP4: at crown), length of P4 (LP4: in ~ alveolus), coronoid elevation (CH: best length from anterodorsal margin the coronoid come posteroventral margin the angular process), and also coronoid breadth (CB: least distance native anterior margin that coronoid at junction v corpus to posterior margin that angular process). Variables no defined over are as in young name et al. (2001).

Results

Specimens indigenous Mindoro are identified from the pteropodine genera Acerodon, Mirimiri, Neopteryx, Pteralopex, and also Pteropus through the number of lower incisors (1 versus 2 in all various other genera), number of lower cheek this (5 matches 6 in all various other genera), number of upper cheek this (5 versus 4 in Neopteryx), framework of the occlusal surfaces of the molars (rounded, wide surfaces matches relatively complicated surfaces through elevated cusps in Acerodon, Mirimiri, Pteralopex, and Pteropus), loved one size of the incisors (I1 and I2 subequal versus 12 substantially bigger than I1 in Mirimiri and Pteralopex), importance of the postorbital process (does not strategy zygomatic arch versus approaches or attaches to zygomatic arch in Mirimiri, Pteralopex, and also some Pteropus), and also position of attachments of the wing to the human body (attaches to sides of earlier versus attaches to, or really nearly to, midline of back in Mirimiri, Neopteryx, and also Pteralopex; personality 34 in Giannini and also Simmons <2005>—Andersen 1912; Bergmans and Rozendaal 1988; Dobson 1878; Flannery 1995; Giannini and also Simmons 2005; Helgen 2005b; Hill and Beckon 1978; Ingle and also Heaney 1992; Koopman 1994; Matschie 1899; fearbut 1907). Specimens native Mindoro are thought about allied come S. Wallacei based upon the number of lower incisors (1) and also lower cheek teeth (5), the rounded, wide occlusal surfaces of the molars, and also externally, white supraocular spots (character 12 in Giannini and also Simmons <2005>), white rostral stripe, white humeral point out (character 16 in Giannini and also Simmons <2005>), and also the conspicuously split hair color between the anterior and posterior regions of the crown. The new specimens are because of this placed in the genus Styloctenium. However, it must be listed that the canines top top specimens native Mindoro are much more facility than those of S. Wallacei and also share some character claims with those found in Pteralopex, Harpyionycteris, and some Nyctimene (characters 62 and 63 in Giannini and also Simmons <2005>).

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Consideration of qualitative personalities strongly support the recognition of specimens indigenous Mindoro together a brand-new species. 16 diagnostic personalities are described listed below to identify the brand-new species from S. Wallacei. External, cranial, and also dental measurements for the new species are offered in Table 1.